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The North eastern states of India are turning vulnerable towards increase in temperature — which bear a significant brunt of the global climate change phenomena which have finally grabbed some serious attention from climate scientists. The eight states – Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya and Sikkim – were studied for the two most important climatic parameters – temperature and rainfall. These studies revealed an increase in the annual mean surface temperature by about 0.64 °C in the 30 years from 2011 to 2040 and by 5.15 °C at the end of the century (2071–2100). It also projects increase in annual mean precipitation by about 0.09 mm/day in the near future and by 0.48 mm/day at the end of the century. So what might be the main reason of increase in temperature in Northeast.
The answers might be something like this-
The government forecaster this year predicted deficient rainfall taking the strengthening El Niño into account. The El Niño weather phenomenon, resulting from the warming of waters in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, is usually associated with a drier monsoon season in India.This year there is a more than 90% chance of El Niño continuing till the autumn, according to US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
Global Warming effect:
Global warming is accelerating the melting of glaciers in the Himalayas, which are melting faster than the global average. That means less rainfall will affect the zone with high risk of floods.
It is one of the important contributors to global warming. There are two main effects of deforestation on global warming:
1) the "slash and burn" technique used to clear the forest releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, and
2) destruction of living trees reduces the amount of photosynthesis, a process that removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and stores it in the plants as carbon. Carbon dioxide, as you may know, is one of the major gases contributing to global warming, and increasing its concentration will affect the amount of warming that occurs.
Besides increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, deforestation will also have a couple of other effects. It will change the surface albedo (i.e., how much of the sun's energy is reflected by the surface) and change the amount of water vapor released into the atmosphere, which will, in turn, have a regional effect on the temperature.
No doubt human population growth is a major contributor to global warming, given that humans use fossil fuels to power their increasingly mechanized lifestyles. More people means more demand for oil, gas, coal and other fuels mined or drilled from below the Earth's surface that, when burned, spew enough carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere to trap warm air inside like a greenhouse.
Too much release of Carbon dioxide (CO):
Co is released into the atmosphere by respiration, burning of fossil fuels for energy, and by decomposition of limestone during the manufacture of cement. It is also emitted during volcanic eruptions. Carbon dioxide gas is confined to troposphere only.
Normally it forms about 0.03 per cent by volume of the atmosphere. With the increased use of fossil fuels, a large amount of carbon dioxide gets released into the atmosphere. Excess of CO2in the air is removed by green plants and this maintains an appropriate level of CO in the atmosphere. Green plants require CO2 for photosynthesis and they, in turn, emit oxygen, thus maintaining the delicate balance. As you know, deforestation and burning of fossil fuel increases the CO2level and disturb the balance in the atmosphere. The increased amount of CO2 in the air is mainly responsible for global warming.
Carbon monoxide due to increase in automobiles use:
Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the most serious air pollutants. It is a colorless and odorless gas; highly poisonous to living beings because of its ability to block the delivery of oxygen to the organs and tissues. It is produced as result of incomplete combustion of carbon. Carbon-monoxide is mainly released into the air by automobile exhaust.
Other sources, which produce CO, involve incomplete combustion of coal, firewood, petrol, etc. The number of vehicles has been increasing over the years all over the world. Many vehicles are poorly maintained and several have inadequate pollution control equipment resulting in the release of greater amount of carbon monoxide and other polluting gases.